Depression: Symptoms, causes, types, and treatments

Symptoms, causes, types, and treatments for depression

Symptoms, causes, types, and treatments for depression

What is depression?

Depression is a mood or mental disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest.

It is also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave, and can create different types of emotional and physical problems.

You may have trouble doing day-to-day activities, and sometimes you can feel as if life is not worth living.

Being sad often feels like taking a very heavy burden, but you are not alone in this struggle. Millions of individuals suffer from some depression every year, which is one of the most common mental disorders.

While some people describe depression as a “living in a black hole” or in the form of imminent doom, others feel lifeless, empty, and nostalgic. Men, in particular, can feel angry and restless.

However, depression, if left untreated, it can become a serious health condition. But it is important to remember that feelings of inadequacy and despair are the symptoms of depression – not the reality of your situation.

Getting a deep understanding of depression can start the journey up to recovery. By taking some time to learn more about the symptoms,  causes, types, and treatments for depression, it will take time to consider the methods of treatment.

No matter how frustrating you feel, you can be better by understanding the cause of your depression and recognizing the various symptoms and types of depression.

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Symptoms of depression

Depression symptoms differ from person to person, but there are some common symptoms. It is important to remember that these symptoms can be part of the general downturn of life.

But the more symptoms you have, the stronger they are, the longer they last – the more likely you are dealing with depression.

Although depression can occur only once in your life, people usually have several episodes. During these episodes, the symptoms are most of the day, almost every day and may include:

The feeling of sadness, unrest, emptiness or disappointment

Anger, irritability or frustration over small things

Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all general activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports

Sleep disturbances, insomnia, or too much sleep

A sense of helplessness and despair or A bleak approach that nothing will ever be better and you can not do anything to improve your situation.

Fatigue and lack of energy, therefore also small tasks make extra efforts

Increased hunger and weight loss or increased cravings to increase food and weight

Anxiety, agitation or restlessness

Sluggish thinking, speaking or body movement

Unconscious feelings or guilt, fixing past failures or self-blame

Worrying thoughts, focusing, deciding and remembering things

Frequent or recurring thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicides

Undefined physical problems, such as back pain or headache

For many people with depression, symptoms are usually serious due to day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities, or the causes of attention-bearing problems in relationships with others.

Causes of depression

The cause of depression may vary person to person and depending on the following factors which may be the possible reason for a cause of depression:


Biological – Changes in Neurotransmitter Level


Psychological and social (psychosocial)

Some people are at high risk of depression compared to others which include:

These include simple events related to life such as divorce, work issues, bereavements, relationships with friends and family, financial problems, medical concerns, or acute stress.

Also depends on the genetic factor in the family background may increase the risk of depression.

Childhood trauma

Some medical prescription which includes corticosteroids, beta-blockers, interferon, and other prescription medications.

Abuse of recreational drugs, alcohol, amphetamine, and other drugs is strongly related to depression.

Previous injury on the head

The subsequent risk increases after having an episode of major depression.

Chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and heart disease make depression more likely.

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Types of depression

Unipolar and bipolar depression

Bipolar disorder is also called Manic Depressive Disorder because it involves alternating between puberty and depressive episodes.

If it is characteristic of both manic and depressed episodes that are separated from the normal mood, then it is known as bipolar disorder (formerly called demented depression).

Unipolar depression may include anxiety and other symptoms – but no manic episodes.

Major depression

This condition is characteristic of depression with psychosis. Psychosis may include confusion – false belief and detachment from reality, or hallucinations – sensing things that do not exist.

Some people are more sensitive to a lesser amount of light in winter. The seasonal affective disorder is a kind of major depression that is caused by a lack of natural sunlight.

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression occurs for mothers after giving birth. Mothers may feel disconnected from their new child or fear that they will hurt their child.

Psychotic depression

Occasionally episodes of Depression may be so serious that hallucinations or delusions are present, the person becomes catatonic, or they feel trapped in bed. It is known as psychotic depression.

Atypical depression

People with atypical depression often feel heaviness in their organs. They may suffer from irritability and relationship problems, as well as the risk of having more food and over-sizing.

Situational depression

Situational depression arises from the event of life-change. It can be anything from losing a job to the death of a loved one in a family member.

Severe depression

The severe depression that appears during the second half of the menstrual cycle is called premenstrual disorder. It affects a person’s ability to function normally.

Treatment of depression

Depression is a mental illness which can be treated by managing and contributing to stress, support, discussing practical solutions and educating family members.

By taking the different types of therapies for depression on the recommendations of your doctor:

Therapy treatments for depression

Psychological (Psychotherapy) or talking therapy for depression include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), reciprocal psychotherapy and problem-solving treatment. In light cases of depression, psychiatrists are the first option for treatment; In medium and serious cases, they can be used with other treatments.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal therapy are the two main types of psychotherapy used in depression. CBT can be distributed in a doctor, face-to-face, group or individual sessions on the telephone or computer.

Reciprocal therapy is a therapy which helps patients identify emotional problems that affect relationships and communication, and how they, in turn, affect the mood and can be changed.

Brain stimulation therapy – including electroconvulsive therapy – is also used in depression. Repetitive trans neural magnetic stimuli send brain to magnetic pulses and can be effective in major depressive disorder.

Electrical therapy – Serious cases of depression that have not responded to drug treatment can benefit from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It is especially effective for mental depression.

Antidepressant Medications

Antidepressants are medicines available on prescription from a doctor. Drugs are used for moderate to severe depression, but are not recommended for children, and will be determined only with caution for teenagers.

Exercise and Other Remedies

Aerobic exercise can help against mild depression because it increases the level of endorphin and neurotransmitters stimulate norepinephrine, which is related to the mood.

Yoga is a more accessible and best form of exercise, because it does not require equipment and because many moves and pauses do not require much effort.

Meditation is a highly effective way to clean your head and mind to calm your body.

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